Drawing on work from educational psychology as well as several other fields, Rueda identifies three primary reasons for the stubborn failure of most school reform efforts: 1) a fragmentation of approaches, 2) a misalignment of approaches and goals, and 3) a failure to match solutions to problems. He argues that most performance and achievement problems are rooted in knowledge gaps, motivation gaps, and institutional gaps, or a combination thereof. This book provides an overview of each of these three dimensions, and discusses ways that they can affect performance. It then discusses a problem-solving framework that helps pinpoint where gaps exist in school efforts to improve performance, and then targets development of solutions and successful outcome loops that are customized to the specific areas that are problematic. The book concludes with a discussion of cultural and contextual considerations that must be taken into account when addressing school-based problems.